Languages

Mongolian, belongs to the Altai group of languages (which include Finnish, Turkish, Kazak, Uzbek and Korean. It is spoken by about 7 million people in the world including Mongolians, Inner Mongolians, Buriyats, Kalkmycks and Tuvinians.

In Mongolian speech organs such as the nose and larynx take relatively less participation but tongue, teeth, palate and lips take an active part in producing sounds. It is a language rich in vocabulary so it has an ample opportunity to translate from any foreign language rendering the meaning of different expressions and ideas. Because of the specific mode of life, customs and environments, there are a lot of terms and expressions not easy to translate into other languages and render their meanings. There are also many proverbs relating to Mongolian life (for example While your father is alive, get acquainted with people, while you have horses, go and see far away lands.)

The Mongol script has five main vowels and 22 consonants and is written vertically. It can be written quickly and therefore considered similar to shorthand. In many cases, the Mongolian writing system does not correspond with pronunciation. In this respect it is similar to written and spoken English. Because of these complications, Mongols tried to adopt the Square (Pags-pa) script in 1269, the Todu Script in 1648, the Soyombo Script in 1686 and the Cyrillic Script in 1941. The latter, Cyrillic Script was successfully adopted unlike the others, and helped to erase illiteracy among the population. The Mongolian Cyrillic Alphabet has 35 letters. There have been attempts to revive the old Mongolian Script but so far, there has been little success.
 

Basic Mongolian from the online magazine Mongolia Today

 Basic Mongolian

 I love you  Bi chamd khairtai...

 Useful Mongolian phrases

 Hello  sain - by - noo
 Good bye  by - yar - tai
 Thank you  by - yar - la
 I am sorry  uch - la - rye
 Don't worry  zoo - gear
 I don't know  me - de - qui
 How much?  Yamar oon - tay way?
 I am an American  be Amerik hun
 Japanese  be Yapon hun
 German  be Gherman hun

 Year, Monts

 One year  neg zhil
 One month  neg sar
 Months

easy to say as only a number is used to indicated the month, like January will be the fist month - NEGdugeer sar

 Numbers

 1  negh
 2  khoyor
 3  ghurav
 4  dhuruv
 5  t'av
 6  z'urgaa
 7  doloo
 8  nay'm
 9  yus
 10  arav
 25  khorin t'av
 50  t'avi
 100  dzuu
 1,000  myanga
 1,000,000  say

 Colours

 White  tsagaan
 Black  khar
 Red  ulaan
 Yellow  shar
 Green  no' ghoon
 Grey  s'aaral
 Blue  tsen'kher
 Orange  yagaan

 Dates

 Monday  Davaa
 Tuesday  Myagmar
 Wednesday  Lhagva
 Thursday  Purev
 Friday  Baasan
 Saturday  Byamba
 Sunday  Nyam

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  Information provided by the Ministry of Tourism. Government of Mongolia.

 

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