Shenyang

Shenyang is located to the north of Hun River (named Shen Shui River in the ancient time), and the ancient Chinese traditionally called the north of a river "yang". So the city got its name as Shenyang. Shenyang is an ancient city with a long history. Back to more than 7,200 years ago, ancestors of the mankind lived and multiplied on this beautiful land. It was subordinate to Yingzhou before Zhou Dynasty (about the 11th century B.C.), subordinate to Liaodong County during the Period of Warring States (475-221 B.C.), to Hou City in the Western Han Dynasty (206-24 B.C.). Shenzhou was set up in Liao Dynastry (960-1127), surrounded by earthen walls. This was the start of the city of Shenyang. The city continued to use the name Shenyang in Jin Dynastry (1127-1279). And in Yuan Dynastry, the city was rebuilt and renamed Shenyang Lu. In 1625, Nurhach, the Tai Zu Emperor of Qing Dynasty, transferred its capital from Liaoyang to Shenyang, and in 1634, Huang Tai Ji, Tai Zong Emperor of Qing Dynasty worshipped Shenyang as Shengjing, and it became the capital of Qing Dynasty. In 1644, after the capital was moved to Beijing in Qing Dynasty, Shenyang became an accompanying capital. After Qing united the whole China, in 1657, it set up Fengtian Government in Shenyang. In 1945, the city recovered its name-Shenyang.

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Geography

Shenyang is located in the southern part of Northeast China and in the central part of Liaoning Province, 12225′9″-12348′24″ East Longitude, and 4111′51″-432′13″North Latitude. The area of the city is 13,008 square kilometers, with an urban area of 3,495 square kilometers.

Most of Shenyang region rests on a plain, stretching flatly. Mountains and highlands are mostly concentrating in the southeastern part, which belongs to the extended part of Liaodong mountainous highlands. The western part of Shenyang is the alluvial plain washed over by Liao River and Hun River, slightly sloping from northeast to southwest. Within the city, there are Liao River, Hun River, North Sha River, Xinkai River and South Canal, etc.

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Climate

It belongs to Temperate Zone Semi-humid Continental Climate in Shenyang area, strongly influenced by monsoon. There are sharp distinctions among the four seasons. The golden tourist season stretches from April to October each year.
Touring in Shenyang in spring and autumn, you only need light clothes (such as jacket, sweater and suit). And it is rather hot in summer, so T-shirt is OK. Compared with the southern part of China, it is cold and dry in winter in Shenyang, so you should bring with you down jacket or cotton coat. It would be a good idea to bring with you rain ears in spring, summer and the period when summer gives place to autumn.

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Natural Ecological Environment

Shenyang has a forest area of 147,000 hectares, a meadow area of 82,400 hectares, a total water resource volume of 3.26 billion cubic meters per year, and a water area of 13,700 hectares. In the surrounding area of Shenyang, there are scenic Huishan Mountain, Tianzhu Mountain and rivers with rippling green waves, such as Hun River, Liao River, North Sha River, Xinkai River and South Canal, etc.

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Economy

Shenyang is one of the famous industrial cities in China keeping a good name of "Equipment Department of PRC". Shenyang has abundant property resources and large-scaled economy. Shenyang ranks the 5th among all the cities in China with regard to its overall strength. At the same time, the World Bank regards Shenyang as one of the most competitive cities of the world.
Shenyang deals in all industrial aspects, and is capable of manufacturing whole set products with high techniques. Also, Shenyang is based on suburban agriculture with high industrialization and comprehensive rate of com-modification. The new rising tertiary industry has developed rapidly, such as: financial industry, information service industry and tourism. Taking advantage of the techniques and qualified personnel, Shenyang has solid strength in technique development, industrialization of advanced techniques and technological markets. As the regional central market, Shenyang has a great impact on its neighbouring cities and even the whole China is under its influence.
 Facing the development of the new century, Shenyang would promote its modernization of industry and agriculture. Developing tourism, electronic communication industry, automobile industry, and environment protection industry would form new pillar industries. Actively participating in the international cooperation and competition would promote the economic development of Shenyang and it will surely play an important role as a central city.

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Culture

The cultural art in Shenyang is prosperous, and the literature creation and artistic performances are blooming day-by-day. There have been new achievements in cultural facilities construction and the mass cultural life is enriched day by day. 22 cultural plazas have been built and come into use. The cultural network of towns and streets in Shenyang is improving day by day. In the whole city, there are 15 mass art houses and culture houses, 2 museums, 19 public libraries, 1 archive establishment. 7 art performing organizations, 1 city-level radio station and 1 city-level TV station. And now, the pro-portion of people receiving radio in the whole city is 97.22%, and the proportion of people receiving TV programs is 98%. And for the whole year, there are also outstanding achievements made in media publishing work.

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A Survey of Tourist Industry

Shenyang, a historically and culturally famous city, is the center of politics, economy, culture and tourism in Northeast China. Shenyang's tourist industry is heading towards industrialization. Through efforts of all, the city functions have been greatly improved, and the solid basis for Shenyang's tourist industry to develop towards internationalization is laid.

Rich tourist resources, excellent geographical advantages, improved tourist productivity level and huge potential for development facilitate the growth of its tourist industry. There are, in Shenyang, a total of 68 international and domestic travel agencies; 63 foreign-related hotels (guest-houses); 48 star-rated hotels and more than 30,000 full-time employees in tourist industry. Its overseas tourist markets extend to more than 130 countries, and its domestic market extends throughout the country. Shenyang has 5 international airlines, and a periodic charter flights to Southeast Asia, Russia and Europe, etc.

Shenyang has become one of the top tourist cities of China, which gives Shenyang a brighter future for the development of its tourist industry. And Shenyang will make a unique presentation to the whole world. Shenyang in the 21st century will be a famous tourist city in the North, which is highly civilized, highly developed and well known throughout the world.

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Tourism Logo of Shenyang

The tourism logo of Shenyang is diamond-shaped. Its pattern consists of 3 parts. On the upper half are the earth and the dove, which come from the deformation of the initial letters of Shenyang-"S" and "Y". On the lower half is the Dazheng Hall of Shenyang Imperial Palace, with the word "Shengyang" on one side and "tourism" on the other. The meaning of the whole pattern is that the famous historical city, Shenyang, welcomes tourists from home and abroad.

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Logo of Shenyang

The Universe develops through competition, yet today's inner meaning is the same as the past. The Sun Bird is a charred piece of ancient woodcut which is unearthed at Shenyang Xinle Relics in 1978. According to research, it is more than 7,200 years old. The original was 45 cm long, in a very beautiful configuration, like a bird, like a fish, like a sheep, yet was none of these. It is an invaluable asset of China. Birds are singing and flying. The Sun Bird was the totem of tribes in the Neolithic Age. The Xinle Tribe regarded it as a saint patron and worshipped it generation after generation.

One city and one country should have its own origin, and have vigorous life in its own. The Sun Bird is the symbol of the start of Shenyang City, and it is also the symbol of the city's spirit and civilization. The Sun Bird is young forever and leaves its good name for thousands of generations.

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City Flower of Shenyang

The rose, which has been regarded as the symbol of good will and noble wishes, is widely cherished by people all over the world. Many countries select is as their national flower. It is widely planted throughout our country and Shenyang, in particular, has a long history of raising rose. In June every year, when rose is in full blossom, the roses in clusters are brightly colored, graceful and fragrant. Besides, the rose can grow in clod weather and even in unfertile soil, therefore, Shenyang selects the rose as its city flower.

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City Tree of Shenyang

The tourism logo of Shenyang is diamond-shaped. Its pattern consists of 3 parts. On the upper half are the earth and the dove, which come from the deformation of the initial letters of Shenyang-"S" and "Y". On the lower half is the Dazheng Hall of Shenyang Imperial Palace, with the word "Shengyang" on one side and "tourism" on the other. The meaning of the whole pattern is that the famous historical city, Shenyang, welcomes tourists from home and abroad.

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Local Culture

Opera and Drama

  • Ping Opera
    Ping Opera is originated from Shenyang. Shenyang Ping Opera Theater was recognized as one of the nation's key theaters in 1962. Artists Han Shaoyun, Hua Shulan and Xiao Junting are representatives of the three main schools of Ping Opera. They are influential persons in the opera arena and are well known in the country. Their representative works include "The Little Son-in-law", "The Tea Bottle', "The Story of Beating Jinzhi". Since the reform and opening up to the outside world, Shenyang Ping Opera Theater made significant achievements in opera creation and presentation. Large numbers of outstanding young artists came forth and won a host of prizes, such as Wenhua Performance Prize, Plum Blossom Drama Prize, Wenhua Prize for Directors and Music Creation Prize, etc. "Mountainous Families" and "A Love for Yangko", two productions of the troupe, won Wenhua Prizes for New Plays.

  • Beijing Opera
    Shenyang Beijing Opera Theater is quite a large Beijing Opera performing group in the country. This theater has a long history. It originated from Ping Opera Working Group of Northeast China Literature Association. Which was founded in 1947. In 1959, Shenyang Beijing Opera Theater was formally founded. Having a strong lineup and well-balanced types of roles, the theater is strong in artistic creation and performance. Within the circle, there is a saying "Qi in the South, Ma in the North and Tang outside the pass", because Qi, Ma and Tang are representative per formers of Beijing Opera. Everyone has his own style and created a performing school. Shenyang Beijing Opera Theater has Tang Yunsheng, one of those three, and other senior performers as Qin Youmei, Huang Yunpeng and Zhou Zhongbo. In recent years the theater has also trained and employed many young and middle-aged artists. Among them there are Chi Xiaoqiu, who is praised as the foremost disciple of the Cheng School, and Li Jingwen, who is called "the Queen of Wudan". Wudan is the general name for the female military characters in Beijing Opera. The main plays of Shenyang Beijing Opera Theater are "Riding alone for One  Thousand Li", "Yandang Mountain" "Hujia" and "Two Wolves Pass" etc.

  • Modern Drama
    Shenyang Modern Drama Troupe was founded in 1948. Now it has 100 actors. Within 40 years the troupe has presented to people many widely welcomed plays, such as "The Camellia Lady", "Troops Coming to City Wall", "The Story of the Confined Young Marshal", "Taking on a Wrong Street-cart", "Lust under the Elm Tree", "The Light of Life" etc. Among them, "Taking on a Wrong Street-cart" was written into the history record of Chinese drama because of its achievements. It has been performed in more than 200 cities of over 22 provinces in a series of 1460 presentations. For those presentations the troupe traveled more than 200,000 km.

  • Acrobatics
    Shenyang Acrobatic Troupe was founded in 1951, and it's the earliest one of those that was founded after the foundation of PRC. It now has more than 160 actors, directors and compositors. During the presentation the performing team explores the legacy of traditional acrobatic art, and develops new skills and actions. With skillful acrobatic actions and perfect overall effects, the troupe sets up a performing style of harmonizing strength with gracefulness, traditional simple style with modern sophisticated style. Shenyang Acrobatic Troupe has ever since visited 200 cities of more than 80 countries, and won many prizes in international acrobatic festivals. It has become the ambassador of cultural exchange and a bridge for friendship between nations. In 1998, Shenyang Acrobatic Troupe presented a refined performance named "Dreams of the Sky". With fine qualified acrobatic skills and a very large scale of performance, the evening party has become the gift of the troupe for new millennium. The evening party comprises Chinese acrobatics, dance, music and other kinds of national art. High technology as sound and laser was employed to achieve thrilling, shocking effects. The fantastic visions deeply impressed the audience. They thought it a perfect performance. By using these high-tech skills, the troupe has reached a height of combining nationalism with modern times.

Folk Customs

  • The Ceremony of the completion of the Veritable Record of National Annals
    In the grand imperial palace, a great work had been completed. In 1636, the first orthodox national annals of Qing Dynasty-the veritable annals of Emperor Wu, the first emperor of Qing-had just been completed. The beginning of a prosperous dynasty had been written into historic books. In order to celebrate this occasion. Emperor Huang Taiji, who was also called Qing Taizong, decided to hold the ceremony himself. The ministers, marshals and officials all came to the palace to contribute their congratulations and pay their respects to the emperor. They all eulogized the ruling emperor. The country was then so strong and prosperous that all the neighboring countries acknowledged the leadership of the Qing Empire. At such a splendid celebration, incense is burned and fragrant smoke is coiling in the palace. The sound of drums, horns and bells were echoing in the forbidden palace. As the performers are playing and dancing, it seems that the history is restored. The annals that record the emperor's merits are written with nothing but the blood and tears of the people. The big celebration just conveys people's respect to the heaven and the earth.

  • Intermarriage-the Sacrifice to Feudal Politics, and Diplomatic Policy of Gaining Alliance
    In the grand imperial palace, a great work had been completed. In 1636, the first orthodox national annals of Qing Dynasty-the veritable annals of Emperor Wu, the first emperor of Qing-had just been completed. The beginning of a prosperous dynasty had been written into historic books. In order to celebrate this occasion. Emperor Huang Taiji, who was also called Qing Taizong, decided to hold the ceremony himself. The ministers, marshals and officials all came to the palace to contribute their congratulations and pay their respects to the emperor. They all eulogized the ruling emperor. The country was then so strong and prosperous that all the neighboring countries acknowledged the leadership of the Qing Empire. At such a splendid celebration, incense is burned and fragrant smoke is coiling in the palace. The sound of drums, horns and bells were echoing in the forbidden palace. As the performers are playing and dancing, it seems that the history is restored. The annals that record the emperor's merits are written with nothing but the blood and tears of the people. The big celebration just conveys people's respect to the heaven and the earth.

  • The Inspection Tour of Emperor Qing Taizong
    300 years ago, to the left of Tianzhu Mountain and on the south bank of Shen River, there stood Shengjing, the capital of Qing Dynasty before they moved across the Shanhai Pass. What a magnificent city it was! At the end of Siping Street there were the Bell Tower and the Drum Tower. In front of the majestic imperial palace, the governmental building lined up on both sides of the street. Accompanied by his wives and followed by guards and the maids of honor, the emperor was going on an inspection tour. When he came to one place he would examine the officials about their merits and listen to people's complaints. The flags were swaying and the weapons were shining. This was an imperial procession. All the proprieties symbolized the mightiness of an imperial empire. Though it has been a past story, it can still arouse your interest.

Festival Activities

  • Shenyang Winter Tourist Festival
    In order to expand the opening up to the outside world, promote the development of tourist industry of Shenyang, and activate people's winter cultural and sport activities, Shenyang Municipal Government decided to set up Shenyang Ice and Snow Festival. It's the third largest winter festival in Northeast China after the success of Harbin Winter Festival and Jilin Winter Festival. Based on folk winter sports activities, the municipal government developed new festival activities of higher level and better quality. The festival aims at transferring the potential advantage of Shenyang winter tourist resources into a real one. The main activities of the festival include Ice and Snow World in Huishan Scenic Spot, ice lantern garden carnival, flower exhibition, calligraphy, drawing and photo exhibition, Shenyang Yangko Competition, etc.

  • Lotus Festival at West Lake Shenyang
    Shenyang West Lake is in Qiandangpu Town, Xinmin City Liaoning Province. The lake surface is altogether about 10,000mu, with 3,000mu natural lotus and 700mu island that stands at the center of the lake. With both natural resources and human cultivation, the lake is praised as "the hometown of Chinese lotus". Shenyang West Lake now has become a big holiday retreat with services of tourism, sightseeing and sports. The people's government of Xinmin County has successfully held several lotus festivals since 1993. The West Lake Lotus Festival starts from 25th, July to 10th, August each year. At that time there come tens of thousands of visitors. The lotus and the music concert are especially appreciated by the visitors. During the festival, businessmen both at home and abroad come to acknowledge the investment circumstances. Xinmin County now has signed more than 1,000 economic cooperation programs, and altogether exploiting foreign capital for about 1.98 billion yuan. The rapid development of the tourist industry in Shenyang promoted the tourist industry development of its subordinate counties. The lotus festival now has become a motivating power to regional economy. Lotus is the city flower of Xinmin. The people of Xinmin make friends with the world through the lotus festival. Shenyang West Lake Lotus Festival, a unique flower, blossoms in Asia.

  • Strange Slope Chinese Scholar-tree Flower Festiva
    Shenyang Strange Slope Scenic Area has Chinese scholar-tree forest of nearly 1,000mu. The flower blossoms in the last 10 days of each May. The fragrant smell spreads and many people come here to enjoy the nature and mold their temperaments. The main activities of Strange Slope Chinese Scholar-tree Flower Festival include poems composing and picture drawing on the spot, which take the Strange Slope culture as the main theme; activities organized by travel agencies and scholar-tree flower show organized by the press circle.

  • International Folk Dance (Yangko) Festival
    In order to expand the opening up to the outside world, promote the development of tourist industry of Shenyang, and activate people's winter cultural and sport activities, Shenyang Municipal Government decided to set up Shenyang Ice and Snow Festival. It's the third largest winter festival in Northeast China after the success of Harbin Winter Festival and Jilin Winter Festival. Based on folk winter sports activities, the municipal government developed new festival activities of higher level and better quality. The festival aims at transferring the potential advantage of Shenyang winter tourist resources into a real one. The main activities of the festival include Ice and Snow World in Huishan Scenic Spot, ice lantern garden carnival, flower exhibition, calligraphy, drawing and photo exhibition, Shenyang Yangko Competition, etc.

  • Shenyang Collage Students Cultural Festival
    Shenyang College Students Cultural Festival is the main cultural activity of the 100,000 college students of more than 60 Shenyang colleges. It's held every 2 years. It's called the "magnificent feat of Chinese educational history". Five festivals have been held from 1990 to 1998. More than 600,000 students have taken part in over 2,400 campus cultural activities.

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  Information provided by China National Tourism Administration.

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