Changsha

Changsha is among the 24 cities in China which have been first listed by the government as famous historical and cultural cities. The earliest inhabitants settled in Changsha about 7,000 years ago, and the city has a written history of more than 3,000 years. During the Xia and Shang dynasties, Changsha belonged to the ancient Sanmiaoyuan land; in the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States periods, it was an important economic, cultural, and military town of southem Chu state. In 221 BC, Emperor Qin Shihuang unified China, and placed Changsha as one of its 36 towns. In Han Dynasty, it was the capital of Changsha State; it belongs to Wu State during the Three Kingdowm period. It was renamed as to Tanzhou several times during Sui and Tang dynasties. It was under Jinghu South Road in Song Dynasty, and renamed as Changsha Prefecture in Ming Dynasty. It became a part of Hunan Province in Qing Dynasty, and was renamed as the capital of Hunan Province in 1922. in 1933, it was chosen as Changsha City, and it was peacefully liberated on August 5, 1949. The long history and the brilliant culture of Changsha leave abundant cultural heritage for Changsha people. A great number of historical relics have been unearthed such as the ancient ceramics of about 7,000 years ago, the unearthed antiques in Mawangdui Han Dynasty Tomb of over 2,000 years ago, the biggest bronze musical instruments in China made and used in the Shang Dynasty (21st-16th century BC), and the first academy among the four ancient academies in China-Yuelu Academy, as well as large amounts of bamboo and wooden books made in the Three Kingdoms Period, the earliest map, the first writing brush and the first steel sword ever found in China. All these make the ancient city Changsha full of charm and attraction.

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Geography

Changsha is situated in the lower reaches of the Xiangjiang River in northeast Hunan. Its exact location is at 110o53ˊ-114o15ˊdegrees east longitude and 27o51ˊ-28o40ˊdegrees north latitude. To its south are Zhuzhou and Xiangtan, to its west is Yiyang and to its north is Yueyang. Changsha borders on Jiangxi Province to the east. Changsha occupies a land of 11,818 sq. km, accounting for 10.12 percent of Hunan. Its city proper occupies an area of 554sq. km.

Changsha has various topographical features, with its highest place in the Qixing Hill of Dawei Mountain standing at 1,607.9 meters above sea level and the lowermost, the Wangxian County, 23 meters above sea level. A large section of northeast Changsha is actually an extending part of the Mufu-Luoxiao mountain ranges, and its north west part is linked with the Xuefeng Mountain. The south and central sections are hilly areas and the north is a plateau. The mountainous areas account for 29.52 percent of Changsha's total area, hilly areas 41.02 percent, plateaus 25.30 percent and lakes and rivers 4.16 percent.

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Climate

The climate in Changsha has sub-tropical characteristics and is there fore very humid all year round. The city has clearly defined seasons, with an average temperature of 16.8-17.2 degrees Centigrade, reaching 40 degrees in summer and dropping to 1 or 2 degrees below zero in winter. With an average sunshine of 1,726 hours a year, it enjoys a long frost free period as long as 279.3 days per year on average.

Spring arrives March 22, which brings pleasant time back to the city featuring green crop fields, colorful flowers, butterflies during the day and the constant singing of frogs by the ponds at night. The dog days begin in the latter part of May, and the high temperature during this period make Changsha one of the "ovens" in China However, one may easily escape the heat to spend one's holidays in a number of summer resorts situated in the mountains located in the suburbs, where lakes, shade provided by trees and cool air make the dream of mid-summer come true. The date of September 19 usually heralds the arrival of autumn, when the leaves covering the mountains turn red, providing a sharp contrast with the crystal-blue water of the Xiangjiang River running nearby. Winter comes at the latter part of November. Changsha has a great deal of snow during winter. But the snow does not last long, giving way to the green vegetation again as soon as the sun re-appears.

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Natural Ecological Environment

The sub-tropical monsoon climate, clearly defined seasons and sufficient rainfall provide good conditions for vegetation to grow. Summer and winter are longer while spring and autumn are shorter. Here, summer lasts approximately 124 days, winter 110 days, spring 70 days and autumn 61 days. January is usually the coldest time with an average temperature of 4.4-5.1 degrees Centigrade. The annual precipitation on average is 1,358.6mm-1,552.5mm. Changsha has a number of parks occupying a total area of 575 hectares, which include the Martyrs' Park, Juzhou Park, Tianxin Park, Yuelushang Scenic Area, the Changsha Zoo and several forests and botanic gardens.

The people's government of Changsha has adopted a sense of measures to improve the local environment and ecology. Environmental protection departments have been established at each level of the government, with a total staff of 333. environmental inspections have become regular, which include monitoring the water quality in the Xiangjiang River and urban wells as well as the air quality in the city areas. In this way these departments have the environmental quality of the city under constant supervision, which provides a scientific basis for preventing and dealing with pollution. It is a requirement that every industrial construction project is built in conjunction with a sewage disposal project, which is a part of its design plan. Up to now Changsha has two sewage disposal plants, with a daily capacity of sewage totaling 250,000 tons.

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Economy

Changsha is the capital of Hunan Province, and there are five districts and four counties under its jurisdiction. It's now serving as the province's political, economic and cultural center. Before 1949, when new China was founded, the economy was underdeveloped and the local industry was virtually non-existent. The last 50 years have seen a tremendous change in Changsha's economic development and urban construction.

In 1998, it realized 54,285 billion yuan of GNP, and its GDP accounted for 16.9 percent of the provincial total. Its proportion of the primary, secondary and tertiary industries was 12.9, 42.9, and 44.2 respectively, its economic growth was four percentage points higher than the province's average; the local government had a revenue of 3.026 billion yuan; the per capita income of urban residents was 6,649.99 yuan and that of rural residents was 2,755 yuan, the investment in fixed assets in the city totaled 14.84 billion yuan, and the foreign trade volume totaled $ 260 million including $ 210 million of exports.

Changsha plays an important role in Hunan's economic development. Its urban areas are the industrial, trade and financial center of the province. Its rural areas are famous for grain production and pig farming. Among the 32 large cities in China, which have a population of 1 million or more, Changsha ranks the eighth in terms of general economic capacity.

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Culture

As an ancient cultural midpoint, Changsha used to be home to a great number of literati in the past dynasties, including such famous figures in Chinese history as Qu Yuan, Jia Yi, Li Yong, Li Bai, DuFu, Han Yu, Liu Zongyuan, liu Changqing, Du Mu, Li Shangyin, Du Xunhe, Ouyang Xiu, Fan Chengda, Yang Wanli and yuan Mei, All these masters left their literary creations and calligraphy in the city.

Changsha was also the cradle of development of the Confucian school in Chinese history and in particular during the Song and Ming dynasties. Many famous scholars who made great contributions to the philosophical development made their home here, including Hu Anguo, Zhang Shi and Zhu Xi in the Song Dynasty, Wang Shouren, Zhang Yuanbian in the Ming Dynasty, and Wang Fuzhi in the Qing Dynasty. It was recorded in history that Zhang Zhongjing, one of the founding fat hers of the Chinese medicine theory, used to be the appointed government head of Changsha, and Sun Simiao, the famous pharmacist, lived in the city for a long time. Changsha was the home town of countless accomplished writers, artists and scholars in both ancient and modern times, including Deng Can, Ouyang Xuan, Wang Xianqian, Ouyang Xun, Huai Su, Qi Ji, Li Dongyang, Feng Zizhen, Yi Yuanji, Qi Baishi, Yi Ba, Wang Kaiyun, Yang Enshou, Ouyang Yuqiang and TianHan.

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Camphor Tree the of Changsha

A referendum was conducted in the city in 1985, to choose a symbolic flower for Changsha. Azalea won the majority of votes and this was soon ratified by the city's people's congress.

Azalea is an ever-green bush, usually growing to a height of two meters. Its leaves, about 3-5 cm in length, are oval shaped. The surface of the leaves is dark-green colored and their back light-green. The flowers of azalea, which are in blossom from March to May, are in the shape of a funnel and are magenta in color. Azalea may be planted in the earth or in flowerpots, but they are best grown in the ground because the plant is prone to wet, cool and rich soil with stronger acidity.

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Azalea the Flower of Changsha

A survey covering 12 main streets in Changsha showed that camphor trees account for 60 percent of the city's vegetation. In 1985, the people's congress of Changsha decided that the camphor tree should be the tree of Changsha, and in the following years 80,000 more such trees were planted in the city.

Camphor trees are typical broadleaf trees growing in subtropical regions. They grow straight and high and are capped by a large and dense crown. The wood of camphor tree is an extremely expensive building material. The flowers of the tree are fragrant, and have a special function which cleans the atmosphere by killing such viruses as tuberculosis, dysentery and diphtheria. The tree is also ideal for disposing of carbon dioxide, ozone and hydrogen fluoride, contributing greatly to the improvement of the air quality.

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Local Culture

Hunan Opera
Hunan Opera is a local drama enjoying the same reputation with Wuhan Opera and Sichuan Opera. It has high, elastic, Kun and low pitched tones. Due to its long history, Hunan Opera offers a long list of plays. Both its music and performance are full of Hunan characteristics. For 500 years since it was initiated, the opera has been welcomed by the Hunan people.
Over the past 50 years, the provincial Hunan Opera theater has made screen versions of the traditional operas worshipping the Moon, Drawing Lots for Life and Death and modern opera Ode to Teachers. They have given performances in Beijing for a dozen times and made many performance tours nationwide. In 1952, Hunan Opera artists Xu Shaoqing, Peng Linong, Yang Fupeng and Lou Yuande carried off the first, second, third and honorary prizes at the first national drama festival. In 1986, entrusted by the Ministry of Culture, they participated in the first "China Local Opera Exhibition" in Hong Kong. The theater also won the first and seventh Wenhua Prize for new plays issued by the Ministry of Culture. Wang Yongguang and Zuo Dabin respectively won Wenhua performance prize.

Hunan Huage Opera
Changsha-based huagu opera, a small folk drama, used to be popular in 12 counties under the ancient Changsha administration, with Changsha official dialect serving as the stage language. There are five sorts of Huagu opera in Yiyang, Xihu, Ningxiang, Liling and Changsha cities, each having its distinctive artistic characteristics. Changsha huagu opera originated from folk songs and dance and underwent a three-stage development course. In the first stage, there were only the roles of female lead and a clown. The part of young men was added in the second stage. In the third stage, it developed into a multi-role drama. The theatrical companies gradually developed from seasonal or semi-professional into professional ones. The earliest huagu opera company was set up in Ningxiang during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). By the end of Qing Dynasty, the art of Changsha huagu opera had improved, with performers also singing Hunan opera. During the Anti-Japanese War, a huagu opera team was set up in Changsha to publicize the endeavor of fighting against Japanese invaders. After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Changsha huagu opera developed quickly. It has three kinds of pitched tones, each having its traditional plays and performing characteristics. Changsha huagu opera is based on chuan tone. The performance featuring the parts of female lead, young men and clown has distinctive artistic characteristics. There are more than 210 traditional plays for huagu opera, of which Liuhai Cuts Firewood and Kite flying won prizes at the national level. In terms of modern operatic creation, plays of influence created during the 1950s include Sister and Sisters-in-Law and Father Luosi Buying an Ox During the 1980s, more than 100 plays won prizes.

Puppet and Shadow Shows
Hunan puppet and shadow shows have a long history. They were popular in rural and urban areas as early as the Tang and Song dynasties. The Hunan Provincial Puppet and Shadow Art Theater, founded in 1956, performed for such Chinese state leaders as Mao Zedong Zhou Enlai, Dong Biwu, He Long and Chen Yi, as well as some foreign state leaders. It has visited and given performances in over 20 countries and regions including the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the former Soviet Union, France, Germany, Japan and the United States. The Puppet and shadow shows performed by the theater, having a distinctive artistic style, are known to the world for steady and precise manipulation, exquisite and lifelike performance. They have won many prizes both at home and abroad, for instance, the "Best Performance" prize at the Third International Puppet Show Festival held in Romania in 1965, the honorary prize at the Australian International Puppet Show Festival in 1983, and the Wenhua Prize for new plays in 1993 and 1997.

Acrobatics
In Hunan, there are three well-known acrobatic performing families, among which the Chen family in Changsha is one. In the past, the folk acrobatic performance mainly referred to variety shows by artisans, juggling or sometimes a monkey show. Most variety shows belong to ordinary traditional techniques, for instance, acrobatics on a bamboo pole, jar-balancing, high-wire walking plate-spinning pagoda of bowls, and flying trident and knife, sometimes interwoven with martial arts. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the provincial acrobatic troupe developed trick-cycling and other acrobatic programs.

Liuyang Drum Music
Liuyang ancient music was developed by the Liuyang ancient music expert Qiu Gushi in 1828. In accordance with the ancient musical system, materials used for making musical instruments are wood, stone, gold, gourd, earth, leather, silk and bamboo, which are called the eight sounds. Such instruments include stone chimes, bell chimes, Chinese windpipe, 25 stringed horizontal harp, flutes and drums. In addition, dance-hosts wore special clothes and hats. A long narrow flag with a dragon painted on it was used to conduct the orchestra. Raising the dragon flag meant the start of the music, while dropping the flag brought it to an end. After the music was developed, workers with the Confucius Temple in Qufu, Shandong went to Liuyang to study the music. In 1963, the Ministry of Culture appropriated special funds for the complete restoration and exploration of ancient music. All ancient musical instruments were provided, and amateur singers were trained in music and dancing. A book Information about Liuyang Ancient Music was compiled. The ancient musical instruments have been collected by the Hunan Provincial Museum. Scores of Liuyang Ancient Music still exist in Japan.

Festival
The Tao Gong Temple is located in Langli Town in Changsha County. The legend goes that during the Jin Dynasty (265-420), Tao Dan, grandson of Tao Kan (259-334) and a Taoist follower since he was a child, pursued a way to maintain good health, He and his nephew Tao Xuan left home and lived in seclusion in the Xiangshan Mountain and practiced the Taoist way of living. The statue of Tao Tan and Tao Xuan are mummies. The ancient people built a temple on the peak of the Xiangshan Mountain to pay respect to them. The temple was maintained and repaired by generations of emperors. Taoist believers called these two people "Tao Gong Real Man" and frequently went to worship them. The thirteenth day of January and seventeenth day of August in the lunar Chinese calendar are the birthdays of these two Tao Gongs according to legend. Traditional temple fairs are held on these two dates each year. The temple is heavy with the smell of incense and resounds with drums and gongs. People come to join in the worship from various places. The spring and autumn temple fairs have promoted the prosperity of the local economy and therefore received great attention. In 1986, the Tao Gong Temple was listed as a cultural relic protection unit of Changsha City.

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Transportation

  • Accessibility to the City
    Changsha, located in the junction of Hunan, Hubei and Jiangxi provinces, is linked to Hong Kong and Macao to the south and to Beijing to the north by the Beijing-Guangzhou Railway. It is also on the bank of the Xiangjiang River. Because of its significant geographical position, it has been listed as an important hub of transportations and one of the country's inland river port cities. It is a vital tourist transportation line in the middle southern regions.

    With the rapid development of the national economy, urban transportations in Changsha have make remarkable progress, with water, land and air transportation available. The Beijing-Guangzhou Rail way linking north and south and Zhejiang-Jiangxi Railway and Hunan-Guizhou Railway linking east and west run through it. The newly built Shijiazhuang-Changsha Railway has been connected with the Zhiliu Railway line. Excursion trains to about 20 cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Guilin, Hangzhou and Zhangjiajie either depart from or stop in Changsha. Regular flights to 42 domestic cities and direct flights to Hong Kong are available at the Changsha Huanghua International Airport. By the end of July 1998, 29 new roads had been completed and 22 renovated or extended.
     

  • Domestic and International Air Routes Airport
    Changsha Airport: The Changsha Huanghua International Airport provides regular flights to 42 domestic cities. It has also opened a flight to the Zhangjiajie scenic spot and has direct flights to Hong Kong To meet the requirements of developing a modernized city; extension is underway of Changsha Airport (including the second terminal building covering an area of 50,000 square meters, and a 3,400 m-long runway and a car park). Flights to Taiwan and Japan are also available now. By the year 2000, the number of air routes will total 60 with the passenger flow expected to reach 4.6 million.

    Changsha is linked to the following cities by air: Beihai, Beijing, Chengdu, Chongqing, Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Changzhou, Guilin, Guizhou, Harbin, Haikou, Zhengzhou, Hefei, Hangzhou, Jinan, Xiamen, Nanjing, Zhangjiajie, Dali, Yichang, Zhuhai, Kunming, Lanzhou, Nanning, Ningbo, Qingdao, Shanghai, Sanya, Shantou, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Shijiazhuang, Taiyuan, Tianjin, Wenzhou, Wuhan, Urumqi, Xi'an, Zhanjiang, Changchun and Jinjiang.
     

  • Railway Station and Excursion Train
    Changsha Railway Station, covering a total area of 42,000 square meters, can accommodate 6,000 passengers. Its annual passenger handling capacity tops 10 million. On January 26, 1998, excursion train No.239 was put into operation on the approval of the Changsha Railway Group Co. The investor is Changsha Railway International Travel Agency. The air-conditioned train has greatly facilitated tourists from Changsha to visit Zhangjiajie. In order to improve service, travel service experts have been invited to give professional training to the train attendants.
     

  • Wharf
    The Changsha port, located on the middle reaches of the Xiangjiang River, is linked to the Yangtze River and coastal areas by a 1,000-ton shipping line. The Changsha Port Passenger TransportationCompany, established in 1950, has a work force of 947 and fixed assets of 8 million yuan. Equipped with 38 vessels of varying size, with a total of 2,500 seats, it offers some 30 voyages a day. Major stops include Changsha, Yueyang, Yiyang, Changde, Jindshi, Anxiang, Xiangtan and Jiujiang.

    Passenger Transportation by Water
    Transportation by water are available in Changsha, Yueyang, Yiyang, Changde, Jinshi, Anxiang, Xiangtan and Jiujiang.

The Departure Time and Prices of Various Voyages at the Changsha Passenger Boat Transport Station
 

No.

Voyage

Name of Boat

Type of Boat

Departure Time

Stops

Price (yuan)

1 Changsha- Jinshi Da Ge Da Russian hydrofoil 13:00 Non-stop 120
2 Changsha-Anxiang Xiang Yun Russian hydrofoil 13:20 Maocaojie 120
3 Changsha-Anxiang Chang’an 1

Chang’an 2

Luxury boat 17:00 Maocaojie, Weshenggong 130 for single room 120 for double 80 for four bed room 60 for eight bed room
4 Changsha- Maocaojie 310

312

Luxuty boat 20:30 Xiangyin, Luhu, Tuishanzui, xingfu Port, Sihushan, Nandahe, Huangmaozhou, Caowei Sleeper: 41, 44, 46, 51

Seat: 23, 24, 25, 26

5 Changsha- Xiangtan Changsha-1

Changsha-2

Russian hydrofoil 7:30 9:30
11:30
13:30
15:30
17:30
Through 20
6 Changsha-Xiangtan Feida Speedboat 8:30
10:30
14:30
16:30
Through 20
7 Changsha-Xiangyin Changfeng Passenger vessel 13:10 Through 10
8 Changsha-Xiangyin Pufan Passenger vessel 14:00 Tiejiaozui, Jingousi, Yaotoushan, Gonggangzha, Duofengting, Laozhakou, Shaping, Zhangshu, the galvanizing plant 10
9 Changsha-Xinquan Hongfei, Pengfei Passenger vessel 7:40

13:30

Tiejiaozui, Gongzha, Zhangshu, Wanhe, Haohe, Dexing, Wuxing, Hetong, Baoshi, Liujiazui 10
10 Changsha-Shangdube 315 Passenger vessel 13:30 Nan’anti, Xinpuzi, Tiejiaozui, Yaotoushan, Gonggangzha, Duofengting, Zhangshu, Jiazhou 10
11 Changsha-Baima Shenfei Passenger vessel 13:30 Haohe, Shangdube, Wuxing, Caijiagang, Hetong, Baoshi, Linzikou, Hepingzha, Dawan 17,13,10
12 Changsha-Tongguan Xiangzhong Speedboat 9:00 13:30
17:30
Xianing Dingziwan 15,12
  • Expressway
    The Changsha-Yiyang Expressway, one section of the No.319 State-level Highway from Shanghai to Chongqing, starts from the west of the No.2 bridge across the Xiangjiang River and ends at the southern approach to the No.2 bridge across the Zijiang River. It is 71.508 km long, of which the Changsha section is 38.327 km long and the Yiyang section 33.181 km long. The highway has six lanes. It is a hermetically enclosed highway with designed speed at 100kph. The total investment was about 1.2 billion yuan. The project began in December 1995 and opened to traffic on July 1, 1998.

    The Changsha-Yiyang Expressway is the first-phase project of the Changsha-Changde Expressway which, running through Changsha, Yiyang and Changde cities, links Jiangxi Province in the east, connecting the Changsha Huanghua International Airport and Jingzhu and Changtan expressways, and links Zhangjiajie, a forest park at the national level, in the west, leading to Guizhou and Sichuan provinces. The construction of the Changsha-Yiyang Expressway is of great strategic significance to the construction of the framework of high-grade highways in Hunan to improve the transportation facilities in the eastern and western part of the province.

    Changyong Expressway
    The Changyong Expressway starts from Niujiaochong in Changsha County in the west and ends at Yong'an Town in Liuyang City in the east. It has a feeder road in the middle to connect the Huanghua International Airport.

    The construction of the Changyong Expressway, under the Hunan Changyong Expressway Co., Ltd., started on July 15, 1994 and was generally completed at the end of June 1996. It officially opened to traffic on August 20, 1996.

    The completion and opening of the Changyong Expressway has greatly eased the traffic congestion on the eastern edge of Changsha. It has also played an important role in improving the local environment for investment and reinvigorating the economy along the route.

    Lianyi Expressway
    The Lianyi Expressway, a key construction project of the Ministry of Transportations and the Hunan Province during the Eighth Five-Year-Plan period (1991-1995), is one section of the No.320 State-level Highway within the territory of Hunan Province. It starts at Lianhuachong in Liling, a border area between Hunan and Jiangxi, and ends at Yijiawan in Xiangtan, joining the No.106 and No.107 State-level Highways and the Changsha-Xiangtan Expressway, having a total length of 71.214km. Construction cost 577 million yuan. The construction of the road began in January 1992 and proceeded in four phases. In February 1995, the whole line was completed and opened to traffic.

    The designed speed is as follows: 100kph for the first-grade car lane, 80kph for the second-grade car lane. The road is provided with complete light signs. On the two sides of the road are arched steel plate railings or column railings. Separation railings are provided outside the roadbed, preventing pedestrians and livestock from entering the highway.

    The Lianyi road serves as the major line linking Changsha and the industrial cities of Zhuzhou and Xiangtan. Its completion has greatly improved the investment environment and promoted economic development in this triangular region. In the meantime, it opens the eastern gateway of Hunan to link the province with east coastal provinces. After it joins the Beijing-Zhuhai Expressway, when the latter is completed, the road will become a major artery facilitating the economic take-off of the province.
     

  • Urban Traffic
    There are 4,800 taxis in Changsha, Xiali and Alto are the main models. The Charade is 8 yuan for 3 km, and 1.6 yuan/km for the fourth until the tenth km. For any journey over 10km, the additional distance will be charged at a rate of 2.4 yuan/km. After 9 pm, the charge will rise to 9.6 yuan for the first 3km. The mileage between the fourth and 10th km is charged at 1.92 yuan/km and that beyond the 10th km is charged at 2.88 yuan/km. The Alto starts at 7 yuan for 3 km. The charge will be 1.4 yuan/km for more than 3 km and 2.1 yuan/km for more than 10 km. After 9 pm, it starts at 8.4 yuan for 3 km, and the passenger will be charged 1.68 yuan/km for more than 3 km and 1.52 yuan/km for more than 10km.
     

Line Departure Bus Stops Destination
1 Railway Station Yuanjialing, Qingshuitang, Zhongshan Road, Ferry dock, Nanmenkou South Railway Station
7 Railway Station Changsha Mansion, Wenyi Lukou, Dongtang, Railway College, Botanic Garden South Bus Station
12 Railway Station Wulipai, Changsha Mansion, Yuanjialing, Jiucaiyuan, Wuyi Square Rongwan Town
110 Railway Station Mawangdui, Mapoling, Academy of Agricultural Science, agricultural school Agriculture College
114 Railway Station Mawangdui, Mapoling, Huanghua Xincun, Jichangkou Huanghua Airport
121 Railway Station Changsha Mansion, Jiefang Donglu, Golden Apple Market, Zhaohuzhan Gaoqiao Market
108 Railway Station Jiefang Donglu, Renminlu Lijiaoqiao, Guihuacun, Tianxinge, Nanmenkou Labor Square
126 Railway Station Sanxiang Market, Huoxing Town, Mawangdui, Post and Telecommunication Plant East Bus Station
312 Railway Station Changsha Mansion, Yuanjialing, Wuyi Square, Wangchengpe West Bus Station
325 Railway Station Changsha Mansion, Wuyi Square, the provincial higher training school of police Provincial Party School
135 Railway Station Changsha Mansion, Golden Apple Market, Guihuacun, Bicuiyuan Tiyuan Beilu
136 Railway Station Yuanjialing, the Martyrs Park, University of Science and Technology for National Defense Window of the World
104 Railway Station Changsha Mansion, Wenyi Lukou, Yaoling, Houjialing, Communications College Artillery Academy
107 Railway Station Jiefang Donglu, Renmin Road, Zuojiatang, Yuhuating, Botanic Garden South bus station
113 Railway Station Yuanjialing, Bayi Road, the Martyrs Park, Zoo, Heishidu No.163 Hospital
118 Railway Station Changsha Mansion, Jiucaiyuan, Wuyi Square, Wangyuehu, Rongyinqiao, Tongzipo Yin Pengling
202 Railway Station Wenyi Lukou, Dongtang, No.3 Hospital, Tianxinge, Wuyi Square, Rongwan Town Yuelu Park
203 Railway Station Yuanjialing, the Martyrs Park, Wujialing, Songguiyuan, Wuyi Square Rongwan Town
Li shan Railway Station Yuanjialing, Wuyi Square, Rongwan Town, Normal University, Yuelu Park Zhongnan Industrial University
2 Dongtang No.3 Hospital, Nanmenkou, Jiefang Road, Wuyi Road, Shuifengjin, Xinghanmen North station
303 Rongwan Town Wuyi Square, Hunan Commercial Building, Bayi Road, the Martyrs Park, provincial gymnasium, Zoo Heishidu
305 Gaoyetang Rongwan Town, Normal University, Yuelu Park Zhongnan Industry University
6 Dongtang Changling, Yaoling, Wenyi Lukou, Jiucaiyuan, Wuyi Square Rongwan Town
9 Chenjiahu Wujialing, Songguiyuan, Wuyilu Lijiaoqiao, Shuguang Road, Renminlu Lijiaoqiao Railway Station
11 Chigangchong Children’s Hospital, Ziyuan Lukou, Fenghuangtai, Zhongshan Road, Cultural Palace Xinhe
315 Rongwan Town Wanglu Bridge, Wangchengpo, Xiangyi, Fenlukou, Huanghuatang Lei Feng Museum
112 Chenjiahu West gate of the Martyrs Park, Qingshuitang Road, Xianfengting, Lundu, Nanmenkou Labor Square
314 Dongtang Nanmenkou, Tianxinge, Qiaodong, Wangchangpo West Bus Station
348 West Bus Station Songguiyuan, No.2 Hospital attached to the Hunan University of Medical Science, Wenyi Luokou, Gaoqiao Building Materials Market Gaoqiao Market
132 Xinhe University of Science and Technology for National Defense, Heishidu, Changsha University Window of the World
142 Huoxing Town Sanxiang Market, Qingshuitang, Xianfengting, Xiangya Road Huaxia Market
101 Sanxiang Market Changsha Mansion, Renminlu Lijiaoqiao, Children’s Hospital, Houjiatang South Railway Station

102

South Bus Station Botanic Garden, Jinwanzi, Railway College, Yuhuating, Shazitang

Dongtang

103 South Bus Station Botanic Garden, Dongtang, Gaoqiao Market, Mawangdui, Dongtundu East Bus Station
106 Xinhe Zhongshan Road, Wuyi Road, Wuyi Square, Rongwan Town, Normal University Yuelu Park
116 Changsha Boilers Factory Changsha Cigarette Factory, Dongtang, Guangji Bridge, Wuyilu Lijiaoqiao, Xiaowumen Wujialing
201 Chigangchong Dongtang, Tianxinge, Tianxin Park, Changsha Railway Station, Golden Apple Market, Zuojiatang Chigangchong
  • Transport to Major Scenic Spots
    At present, 54 public transit routes are available in Changsha with more than 400 bus stops. The major include 1,2,3,6,9,7,11,12,202. The urban bus routes service starts at 6 am and ends at 11 pm. The price of most bus tickets is 0.5 yuan. Some new buses with air conditioning, minibuses and buses without ticket sellers have also been put into service. There are over 20 bus routes leading to the scenic spots, for instance, Buses No.303, No.136, No.112, No.113 and No.203 to the Martyrs Park; Buses No.7, No.102, No.103 and No.107 to the Changsha Forest Botanic Garden; Buses No.303 and No.113 to the Zoo; Buses No.348, No.132 and No.136 to the Changsha window of the World; Buses No.5, No.106 and No.202 to the Yuelu Park and Yuelu Academy; Buses No.108, No.201 and No.202 to the Tianxin Pavilion; and /bus No.315 to the Lei Feng Museum.

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Shopping and Food

Local Specialties
Chrysanthemum stones, distributed in the Daxi River valley in Yonghe in Yonghe Town, Liuyang City, belong to the category of marine deposits. A Chrysanthemum stone consists of stamen and petals. Flint, a kind of silicoide separated from marl or siliceous nodule, forms the stamen. Calcite or zolestin takes the coral framework, forming petals. These petals radiate from the center. Reserves totaling 160,000 tons have been verified of chrysanthemum stones.

  • Chrysanthemum Stones
    Chrysanthemum stones, distributed in the Daxi River valley in Yonghe in Yonghe Town, Liuyang City, belong to the category of marine deposits. A Chrysanthemum stone consists of stamen and petals. Flint, a kind of silicoide separated from marl or siliceous nodule, forms the stamen. Calcite or zolestin takes the coral framework, forming petals. These petals radiate from the center. Reserves totaling 160,000 tons have been verified of chrysanthemum stones.

  • Hunan Embroidery
    Embroidery is well-known traditional handicraft of Hunan. Together with Suzhou, Guangdong and Sichuan embroidery, it forms the four noted kinds of embroidery made by the Han people. Hunan embroidery has the following characteristics in terms of workmanship: using fine floss and dividing silk yam carefully, giving various patterns a sense of reality. The Embroidered articles are colorful, bright and natural, and the patterns are vivid and true to life. Hence, Hunan embroidery has the reputation that "the embroidered flower can produce a sweet smell, the embroidered birds can sing, the embroidered tiger can run and the embroidered human is lifelike".

  • Liuyang Fireworks
    Liuyang Fireworks Fire works are traditional products of Liuyang, stretching back to the Tang Dynasty (618-907). The industry developed very quickly during the Song Dynasty (960-1279). Liuyang fireworks are famous for their exquisite workmanship, high quality, various kinds and safety when fired. As a result, they have been well received both at home and abroad in over 50 countries and regions. Now the yearly output and exportion quantity of Liuyang fireworks are 60 and 80 percents of that of the whole country respectively.

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